Minangkabau is an ethnicity or tribe from Indonesia, commonly known as ethnic Minang. Its region include West Sumatera, some mainland of Riau, Bengkulu and the west coast of North Sumatera, southwest of Aceh and Negeri Sembilan Malaysia.
Minang tribe is unique, because tribal lineage is based on mother or matrilineal descent. In matrilineal system, mastery treasures are held by women, while men only slightly. Men after puberty, they can’t stay at his parent’s home, because that home only for woman with her husband and her childreen. They will sleep in “Surau” like a small Mosque and they will learn about life and Islam at there. And after men married, he would come to the house of his wife and his in-laws.
In Minangkabau, there are three important elements who build and maintain the cultural integrity and customs, they are Alim Ulama (Scholars), Cerdik Pandai (Intellectual), and Ninik Mamak. Alim Ulama maintain for integrity of religion (Islam), Cerdik Pandai maintain for integrity of knowledge and Ninik Mamak maintain for integrity of customs. This is called as “Tungku Tigo Sajarangan”. Minangkabau have democratic system, all matters are discussed by three elements by concensus. On the other hand customs and cultures of Minang put woman as heir inheritance and kinship. The lineage referred to the mother is known as “Samande” and father is known as Sumando (in-law) and father have to obtain and be respected like a visitor. Women determine the successful implementation of the decisions made by men. Women handle a crucial role. However, men still hold the authority has the power to communities.
Minang society is known as the nomads society. Especially men, if he doesn’t wander, he would be mocked by his friends. However, today not only men wander, but women wander too for continue her study, career or for trading career. For this reason minang society is stay in everywhere, they have spacious thought, freedom of life to change the fate, to reach knowledge and wealth.
The cultures of Minang is very strong in Islam. In their life is known as “Adat Basandi Syarak dan Syarak Basandi Kitabullah”. Its mean that cultures of Minang is based on rule and rule is based on Al Quran, so Minang cultures is based on teachings of Islam. All of Minang societies embraces Islam, if they leave Islam so directly they will be exit from Minang society and they are not admitted as Minang Societies. This is known as “Dibuang Sepanjang Adat”.
In economic sector, Minang societies are famous in trading as professional and intellectual. They are know as intellectual people, so that’s why they stay in all of province in Indonesia and moreover in foreign countries. Any profession besides trading, they are known as politicians, writer, scholars, teacher and journalist. Their success are reached when they wander in outside of Minang region.
Many politicians of Indonesia from Minang, such as Drs. Mohammad Hatta as first vice president of Indonesia, Tan Malaka as vice International Communist for South East of Asia, Muhammad Yamin as pioneer of “Sumpah Pemuda”, Chaerul Saleh, Emil Salim, Azwar Anas, Fahmi Idris and many more. Minangkabau is one of ethnic in Indonesia that always grasp in governmental cabinet besides Java ethnic.
In Intellectual sector, Minang societies have habit to think and analyze all knowledge. They also is known as superior entrepreneur in economic not only in Indonesia and moreover in foreign countries.